Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can look quite different in different people and following different experiences. A psychologist who specializes in assessing and treating PTSD is best placed to make the diagnosis and they will use clinical judgment, in addition to psychometric tests, to ensure the diagnosis is accurate. Only psychologists have access to psychometric tests that are validated for clinical use.
You are right to question how the diagnosis is made because an appropriate diagnosis is important. Although a label is not really useful on its own, unless it helps a person better understand what they are experiencing, an accurate diagnosis informs treatment. In the case of PTSD, treatment is fairly specific so an accurate diagnosis is vital.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV TR) is available on the web and it describes the diagnostic criteria for PTSD, but be mindful that the newest version of the DSM (DSM 5) was released yesterday (Sunday 20th May 2013) and the diagnostic criteria for PTSD have changed. Use the “Find a Psychologist” service of the Australian Psychological Society to locate a psychologist specializing in PTSD in your area. Posttraumatic stress is difficult to live with but evidence based therapy can be very effective. I wish you well.
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