In all human interactions we impact on, and are impacted by, each other. Probably never more so than in interactions between parent and infant.
Research has shown that it is not PN depression in and of itself that adversely affects infants but the degree to which depression impacts the parent-infant relationship. Like any stressor, depression has varying impacts on areas of our lives (eg some people suffer greatly with depression and achieve highly in the workplace, others struggle to leave the house, some can maintain social contacts, for others this is too difficult).
It has been well documented that the parents play a crucial role in their child's development. However, all any parent (or human being for that matter) can do is to be "good enough". Good enough parenting involves being in tune and responsive enough to the child. This can counterbalance the times we are inevitably too tired, angry, impacted by depression etc. In good enough conditions the child learns that the people we love sometimes let us down and vice versa but the relationship still survives.
As Vivienne and others pointed out above, support is the most important factor. It is so important parents feel supported to talk frankly about all aspects of their experience. It is essential they can access support where they do not feel harshly scrutinised (most are harsh enough on themselves already!), or if they do feel this way, they are able to raise their feelings and talk them through productively. Overall, it is imperative parents feel someone is working with them to try and understand and make sense all of their experiences with an attitude of genuine compassion.
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