This is very vague question that requires an epic response that would make Leo Tolstoy blush.
I will put down some of the most common ones;
- trauma, ie; sprained ankle, fractured bone, etc.
- poor foot mechanics
- incorrectly prescribed/sold footwear or excessively worn footwear
- incorrectly prescribed orthotics or orthotics that are too old
- increased body mass
- overtraining or having a rapid increase in the intensity or volume of training or surface change (ie; changing from running on grass to concrete)
- degeneration, ie; good ol' osteoarthritis
- muscular weakness or tightness
- poor gluteas medius and core functional control
Basically, we have to realise that we did not evolve to walk or run in a concrete world, yet we have made the world out of concrete. As such, our feet, knees and hips need to be cushioned from that hard world or else the shock forces travel up the foot and leg which results in degeneration. We live in an ageing population which is further compounded by the majority of Australians being overweight (2005 National Health Survey found that 53.6% are overweight, while 2007 World Health Organisation put that figure at a whopping 67.4%). Age and weight place stress on people's feet and should they start a fitness program in an effort to lose the weight (most commonly running on the footpath), then injuries can occur.
Stew, not Tolstoy, yet
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